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  1. #1161
    Moderator at Work ilan's Avatar
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    A small asteroid hit us last weekend
    Eddie Irizarry in SPACE | June 26, 2019


    Asteroid 2019 MO exploded in our atmosphere with an energy of about 3 to 5 kilotons of TNT. Such events happen once or twice yearly, astronomers say. Most are unexpected, but this space rock was detected hours before it struck.


    The small, harmless, 4-meter near-Earth asteroid – now designated 2019 MO – created this bright flash when it struck Earth’s atmosphere on June 22, 2019, over the Caribbean. Images via RAMMB/CIRA/Colorado State University.

    Scientists have confirmed a meteor impact with Earth’s atmosphere over the Caribbean last weekend. The bright flash was detected by by NOAA’s GOES-16 satellite and other meteorological satellites, showing the event occurred on Saturday, June 22, 2019, at around 5:25 p.m. EDT (21:25 UTC) some 170 miles (274 km) south of Puerto Rico. Astronomer Peter Brown, a meteor expert from University of Western Ontario in Ontario, Canada, said that an infrasound station located in Bermuda did detect airwaves produced by the space rock’s impact in the atmosphere. The object is believed to have been a small asteroid, and it was unusual in that it was detected prior to its impact – in the hours before – by the Atlas (Asteroid Terrestrial-impact Last Alert System) in Hawaii. Brown said the impact was:

    … consistent with 3 to 5 kilotons (of energy).

    By contrast, the atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima on August 6, 1945, exploded with an energy of about 15 kilotons of TNT. Both the energy released, as well as the observations made from the Atlas Observatory, suggest the June 22 space rock was about 13 feet (4 meters) in diameter. Originally designated A10eoM1, the rock has now been designated as asteroid 2019 MO. Ernesto [email protected]:

    Just released MPEC with official designation (2019 MO) for A10eoM1 (that impacted earth's atmosphere aroundJune 22 21:30 UTC)

    Although small space rocks and fragments rain down on Earth’s atmosphere continuously, experts at NASA’s Center for Near Earth Object Studies say that large events such as the one on June 22 occur about once or twice a year. Earth’s atmosphere does its job in protecting us in these cases, causing drag or friction that disintegrates most of these small objects before they strike the ground (although a few do strike, and more fall into the ocean).
    Last edited by ilan; 06-27-2019 at 12:12 PM.
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  2. #1162
    Moderator at Work ilan's Avatar
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    Today in science: Tunguska explosion
    Posted by EarthSky in EARTH | SPACE | June 30, 2019

    We celebrate Asteroid Day on June 30 because it’s the anniversary of a 1908 explosion over Siberia that killed reindeer and flattened trees. Here’s the latest on what we know.

    A 1929 image of fallen trees at Tunguska in Siberia. It wasn’t until 1927 that Russian scientists – led by Leonid Kulik – were finally able to get to the scene. Today, a global asteroid-awareness campaign (#WorldAsteroidDay) is held every June 30, the anniversary of the Tunguska event. Photo via the Soviet Academy of Science/Wikimedia Commons.
    June 30 is Asteroid Day 2019

    June 30, 1908 In a remote part of Russia, a fireball was seen streaking across the daytime sky. Within moments, something exploded in the atmosphere above Siberia’s Podkamennaya Tunguska River in what is now Krasnoyarsk Krai, Russia. This event – now widely known as the Tunguska event – is believed to have been caused by an incoming asteroid (or comet), which never actually struck Earth but instead exploded in the atmosphere, causing what is known as an air burst, three to six miles (5–10 kilometers) above Earth’s surface.

    The explosion released enough energy to kill reindeer and flatten trees for many kilometers around the blast site. But no crater was ever found. At the time, it was difficult to reach this remote part of Siberia. It wasn’t until 1927 that Leonid Kulik led the first Soviet research expedition to investigate the Tunguska event. He made a initial trip to the region, interviewed local witnesses and explored the region where the trees had been felled. He became convinced that they were all turned with their roots to the center. He did not find any meteorite fragments, and he did not find a meteorite crater.

    Over the years, scientists and others concocted fabulous explanations for the Tunguska explosion. Some were pretty wild – such as the encounter of Earth with an alien spacecraft, or a mini-black-hole, or a particle of antimatter.

    The truth is more ordinary. In all likelihood, a small icy comet or stony asteroid collided with Earth’s atmosphere on June 30, 1908. If it were an asteroid, it might have been about a third as big as a football field – moving at about 15 kilometers (10 miles) per second.

    In 2019, new research – inspired by a workshop held at NASA’s Ames Research Center in Silicon Valley and sponsored by the NASA Planetary Defense Coordination Office – was published about the Tunguska event, in series of papers in a special issue of the journal Icarus. The theme of the workshop was reexamining the astronomical cold case of the 1908 Tunguska impact event.

    Vital clues to the Tunguska event appeared on February 15, 2013, when a smaller but still impressive meteor burst in the atmosphere near Chelyabinsk, Russia. NASA explained:

    New evidence to help solve the mystery of Tunguska had arrived. This highly documented fireball created an opportunity for researchers to apply modern computer modeling techniques to explain what was seen, heard and felt.

    The models were used with video observations of the fireball and maps of the damage on the ground to reconstruct the original size, motion and speed of the Chelyabinsk object. The resulting interpretation is that Chelyabinsk was most likely a stony asteroid the size of a five-story building that broke apart 15 miles above the ground. This generated a shock wave equivalent to a 550-kiloton explosion. The explosion’s shockwave blew out roughly a million windows and injured more than a thousand people. Fortunately, the force of the explosion was not enough to knock down trees or structures.

    Per current understanding of the asteroid population, an object like the Chelyabinsk meteor can impact the Earth every 10 to 100 years on average.

    In recent decades, astronomers have come to take the possibility of comet and asteroid impacts very seriously indeed. They now have regular observing programs to watch for Near-Earth Objects, as they’re called. They meet regularly to discuss what might happen if we did find an object on a collision course with Earth. And space scientists are planning missions to an asteroid, including Hera and DART.

    Lorien Wheeler – a researcher at NASA Ames Research Center, working on NASA’s Asteroid Threat Assessment Project – said:

    Because there are so few observed cases, a lot of uncertainty remains about how large asteroids break up in the atmosphere and how much damage they could cause on the ground. However, recent advancements in computational models, along with analyses of the Chelyabinsk and other meteor events, are helping to improve our understanding of these factors so that we can better evaluate potential asteroid threats in the future.

    Astronomer David Morrison, also at NASA Ames Research Center, commented:

    Tunguska is the largest cosmic impact witnessed by modern humans. It also is characteristic of the sort of impact we are likely to have to protect against in the future.

    Bottom line: On June 30, 1908, an object from space exploded above Siberia. The explosion killed reindeer and flattened trees, in what has become known as the Tunguska event. Recent research shows that the object was most likely a stony asteroid the size of a five-story building that broke apart 15 miles above the ground.
    Last edited by ilan; 06-30-2019 at 12:21 PM.
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  3. #1163
    Moderator at Work ilan's Avatar
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    How to see Pluto in your sky
    Deborah Byrd in ASTRONOMY ESSENTIALS | SPACE | July 3, 2019

    Pluto’s opposition – marking the middle of the best time of year to see it – is coming up on July 14, 2019. Telescope users spot it by locating Pluto among the stars and watching nightly for the object that moves


    Steven Bellavia in Mattituck, New York, captured Pluto on 2 separate nights, June 24 and June 27. In this animated gif, you can see that Pluto moved in front of the stars between those 2 nights. Steven wrote: “Most of the motion you see is actually from the Earth, not Pluto, since our motion changes our perspective of the much-closer Pluto against the backdrop of the much-farther stars.” Thanks, Steven!
    Small icy Pluto – discovered in 1930 – requires a telescope to be seen. It’s some 1,000 times too faint to see with the eye alone. How can you spot it? The only way is to locate Pluto’s starfield through a telescope, and watch over several nights for the object that moves. That’ll be Pluto! It’s seen to move because it’s so much closer to us than the distant stars.

    In fact, Pluto is the most distant object in our solar system that can be viewed through amateur telescopes.

    And the best time of year to see Pluto through a small telescope is here! The planet will reach its opposition on July 14, 2019. At opposition, Pluto appears more or less opposite the sun in our sky, rising in the east as the sun sets in the west. At this time, our planet Earth is passing approximately between Pluto and the sun; we aren’t going directly between Pluto and the sun this year as we did in 2018. Also, don’t let that opposition date – July 14 – fool you. Pluto is visible somewhere in the sky, for some hours of the night, for most of every year. July 14 just marks the middle of the best time of year to see it.

    Here are few tips for spotting Pluto in 2019:

    – You’ll need at least an 8-inch telescope. A 12-inch telescope – like the one used by Efrain Morales to capture the image at the bottom of this post – will capture even more light from this distant world.

    – You’ll want dark, clear, country skies. Visit EarthSky’s Best Places to Stargaze page for dark locations near you.

    – Pluto is traveling in front of the constellation Sagittarius this year, as seen from Earth.

    Bottom line: The only way to spot it is to locate Pluto’s starfield through a telescope, and watch over several nights for the object that moves. That’ll be Pluto. Over the weeks following its opposition, Pluto will rise four minutes earlier each night. That means it’ll be in the east at sundown, setting before dawn, by August. Finding it requires patience and a telescope! But it’s very satisfying to see Pluto with your own eyes.
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  4. #1164
    Moderator at Work ilan's Avatar
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    New photo captures Eta Carinae’s fireworks show
    Hailey Rose Mclaughlin | Published: Wednesday, July 03, 2019

    Hubble reveals a festive explosion and new information on the exploding star.


    NASA, ESA, N. Smith (University of Arizona) and J. Morse (BoldlyGo Institute)
    As though in preparation for summer festivities, the Hubble Space Telescope captured this cosmic fireworks show from Eta Carinae. The double star system, glowing in red, white, and blue, has exploded several times. The most recent explosion was nearly 200 years ago, in 1838, when an event called the Great Eruption set this fireworks show off.

    Hubble has been photographing Eta Carinae for 25 years, but this is the highest resolution photo it has taken of the system yet. The new photo was taken in ultraviolet light using Hubble’s Wide Field Camera 3, revealing magnesium gas (blue) amidst glowing nitrogen (red). Astronomers expected to see magnesium among the outer filaments of red nitrogen. But they instead also found it, surprisingly, filling the space between the expanding “bubbles” of dust and gas from the stars and the outlying nitrogen.

    The pair is about 7,500 light-years from Earth. Once an important star to navigators, Eta Carinae is no longer visible to the naked eye on Earth. There is still a lot that’s unknown about Eta Carinae, including how large the star system was before the Great Eruption. This new Hubble photo may even help scientists figure out how the Great Eruption began.

    Regardless of what set them off, the fireworks are set to end when Eta Carinae’s larger star explodes as a supernova. This event could have even happened already, but due to the distance, it would take almost 8,000 years for the light to reach Earth.
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  5. #1165
    Moderator at Work ilan's Avatar
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    UFOs: Where your state ranks for unexplained sightings
    Edward C. Baig, USA TODAY Published 12:01 a.m. ET July 2, 2019 | Updated 5:42 p.m. ET July 2, 2019


    The truth is out there. Extraterrestrials are more likely to visit from the North.

    That’s one way, anyway, to interpret the results from a new report on the states with the most unidentified flying object sightings per capita. Washington state topped that list, followed in order by Montana, Vermont, Alaska and Maine.

    Or maybe Northerners just believe more.

    So much for Roswell, New Mexico, or the lonely Nevada desert. New Mexico came in 8th on the list; Nevada, 13th.

    Meanwhile, the states with the fewest UFO sightings per capita — Texas, Louisiana, Georgia, Mississippi and Alabama -- are all down South.

    The list was put together by the analysts and space nerds at internet provider SatelliteInternet.com, which culled data from the National UFO Reporting Center and the U.S. Census, to attract attention in time for World UFO Day on July 2. (Yep, there is such a day.)

    It must be pointed out that Washington state, which had about 78 sightings per 100,000 people, is home to the National UFO Reporting Center, a repository for such sightings.

    Among them: A California couple reported seeing three red lights in a triangle shape, described as "huge," low in the sky.

    In Orlando, Florida, a person claimed (in all caps) to see “15 STRANGE OVAL LIGHTS ABOVE THE LOW CLOUDS,” south of the city.

    And someone in Heppner, Oregon, noticed a fast-moving, classic cigar-shaped high altitude object with no wings.

    Though UFOs have fascinated people for generations, they have been in the news of late, with recent reports that the U.S. Navy is drafting new guidelines for pilots who witness unexplained aircraft because of increases in sightings near sensitive military outposts and at sea.

    Some members of the U.S. Senate have also received classified briefings on UFO sightings from the Pentagon.

    The sightings are more common in summer, which is not entirely surprising since it's a season when more earthlings spend time outdoors. Though SatelliteInternet.com offered another possible explanation: “maybe aliens go on summer vacations with their kids, too.”
    Last edited by ilan; 07-06-2019 at 12:00 AM.
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  6. #1166
    Moderator at Work ilan's Avatar
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    More amazing images of the July 2 eclipse
    Deborah Byrd in ASTRONOMY ESSENTIALS | TODAY'S IMAGE | July 4, 2019

    Some called it the “astronomer’s eclipse” because it passed near major observatories in Chile. Check out these beautiful images of the July 2, 2019, total solar eclipse.


    Moon in front of sun
    ESO’s La Silla Observatory in Chile, South America





    Prominence seen in the sun’s chromosphere July 2, 2019, total solar eclipse





    Pablo Goffard caught the July 2 total solar eclipse from Incahuasi, Chile





    Proba-2 views four partial eclipses
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  7. #1167
    Moderator at Work ilan's Avatar
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    THREE ‘METEOR-LIKE’ UFOS REPORTED OVER TEXAS
    Roger Marsh, Mufon | 9 July 2019


    Witness illustration. Credit: MUFON

    A Texas witness at San Antonio reported watching triangular-shaped object “falling like a feather” that were “burning white,” according to testimony in Case 96065 from the Mutual UFO Network (MUFON) witness reporting database.

    The events took place on July 9, 2018.

    “I was looking at the southern sky,” the witness stated. “I turned around to look north and noticed three meteors falling they were falling like a feather. It was an angular fall. I began to wonder what it was. I was on my drive way. It was heading to the center of the city as it continued to fall. The tips of the triangle were burning hot, bright, white yellow. Just as I thought it was going to crash land it pulled up ventral side up. I noticed the pink burning atmosphere around the sides. It had three bright, green lights on its sides. It looked as large as a jet airliner. As it pulled up to avoid a crash it flew over the area it appeared to head to downtown area or a base. Following parallel to Fredricksburg Road. I did not hear a sound. There were no planes helicopters or jets before or after. It was a very quiet night. As I stood there focusing on it as it became more clear it was a triangle with big bright, green lights burning through the atmosphere just as I was losing sight over neighbors roof. I knew what I saw. My hairs all over rose up. My eyes opened wider and I said, ‘oh my God.’ No one was awake at the time or on the street.”

    Texas MUFON Chief Investigator Ken Jordan closed this case as Information Only.
    Last edited by ilan; 07-09-2019 at 09:03 PM.
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  8. #1168
    Pinball Wizard Kimbo's Avatar
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    Also a lot of news about radio waves (FRB) being caught lately, is just a matter of time to make contact!!

  9. #1169
    Moderator at Work ilan's Avatar
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    Uranus: The Ringed Planet That Sits on its Side
    Charles Q. Choi, Space | 11 July 2019


    Uranus is the seventh planet from the sun and the first to be discovered by scientists. Although Uranus is visible to the naked eye, it was long mistaken as a star because of the planet's dimness and slow orbit. The planet is also notable for its dramatic tilt, which causes its axis to point nearly directly at the sun.

    British astronomer William Herschel discovered Uranus on March 13, 1781, with his telescope while surveying all stars down to those about 10 times dimmer than can be seen by the naked eye. One star seemed different, and within a year Herschel realized the star followed a planetary orbit.

    Uranus (as it was called commonly after 1850 or so) was named after the Greek sky deity Ouranos, the earliest of the lords of the heavens. It is the only planet to be named after a Greek god rather than a Roman one. Before the name was settled on, many names had been proposed for the new planet, including Hypercronius ("above Saturn"), Minerva (the Roman goddess of wisdom) and Herschel, after its discoverer. To flatter King George III of England, Herschel proposed the name Georgium Sidus ("The Georgian Planet"), but the idea was unpopular outside England and King George's native Hanover, Germany.

    German astronomer Johann Bode, who detailed Uranus' orbit, gave the planet its ultimate name. Bode argued that as Saturn was the father of Jupiter, the new planet should be named for the father of Saturn.

    Physical characteristics

    Uranus is blue-green in color, as a result of the methane in its mostly hydrogen-helium atmosphere. The planet is often dubbed an ice giant, since at least 80% of its mass is a fluid mix of water, methane and ammonia ice.

    Unlike the other planets of the solar system, Uranus is tilted so far that it essentially orbits the sun on its side, with the axis of its spin nearly pointing at the star. This unusual orientation might be due to a collision with a planet-size body, or several small bodies, soon after it was formed. A 2018 study suggested the colliding world could have been twice the size of Earth.

    This unusual tilt gives rise to extreme seasons that last for about 20 years. This means that for nearly a quarter of the Uranian year, which is equal to 84 Earth-years, the sun shines directly over each pole, leaving the other half of the planet to experience a long, dark and frigid winter.

    Uranus has the coldest atmosphere of any of the planets in the solar system, even though it is not the most distant from the sun. That's because Uranus has little to no internal heat to supplement the heat from the sun.

    The magnetic poles of most planets are typically more or less lined up with the axis along which it rotates, but Uranus' magnetic field is tilted, with its magnetic axis tipped nearly 60 degrees away from the planet's axis of rotation. This leads to a strangely lopsided magnetic field for Uranus, with the strength of the field at the northern hemisphere's surface being up to more than 10 times that of the strength at the southern hemisphere's surface. A 2017 study suggested the lopsided nature of Uranus' magnetic field may also lead it to flicker on and off during every rotation (about every 17.24 hours).

    Uranus' atmospheric composition by volume is 82.5% hydrogen, 15.2% helium and 2.3% methane. Its internal structure is made up of a mantle of water, ammonia and methane ices, as well as a core of iron and magnesium silicate. Uranus' average distance from the sun is roughly 1.8 billion miles (2.9 billion km), according to NASA. That’s about 19 times the distance from the Earth to the sun.

    Uranus' climate

    The extreme axial tilt Uranus experiences can give rise to unusual weather. As sunlight reaches some areas for the first time in years, it heats up the atmosphere, triggering gigantic springtime storms, according to NASA.

    However, when Voyager 2 first imaged Uranus in 1986 at the height of summer in its south, the spacecraft saw a bland-looking sphere with only about 10 or so visible clouds, leading to it to be dubbed "the most boring planet," wrote astronomer Heidi Hammel in "The Ice Giant Systems of Uranus and Neptune," a chapter in "Solar System Update" (Springer, 2007), a compilation of reviews in solar system science. It was decades later, when advanced telescopes such as Hubble came into play and Uranus' long seasons changed, before scientists witnessed the extreme weather on Uranus.

    In 2014, astronomers got their first glimpse at summer storms raging on Uranus. Strangely, these massive storms took place seven years after the planet reached its closest approach to the sun, and it remains a mystery why the giant storms occurred after the sun’s heating on the planet was at a maximum.

    Other unusual weather on Uranus includes diamond rain, which is thought to sink thousands of miles below the surface of icy giant planets such as Uranus and Neptune. Carbon and hydrogen are thought to compress under extreme heat and pressure deep in the atmospheres of these planets to form diamonds, which are then thought to sink downward, eventually settling around the cores of those worlds.

    Yes, Uranus has rings

    The rings of Uranus were the first to be seen after Saturn's. They were a significant discovery, because it helped astronomers understand that rings are a common feature of planets, not merely a peculiarity of Saturn.

    Uranus possesses two sets of rings. The inner system of rings consists mostly of narrow, dark rings, while an outer system of two more-distant rings, discovered by the Hubble Space Telescope, are brightly colored: one red, one blue. Scientists have identified 13 known rings around Uranus.

    A 2016 study suggested that the rings of Uranus, Saturn and Neptune may be the remnants of Pluto-like dwarf planets that strayed too close to the giant worlds long ago. These dwarf planets were torn apart in the planets’ vast gravities and are today preserved as rings.

    Uranus also has moons


    Uranus has 27 known moons. Instead of being named after figures from Greek or Roman mythology, its first four moons were named after magical spirits in English literature, such as William Shakespeare's "A Midsummer Night's Dream" and Alexander Pope's "The Rape of the Lock." Since then, astronomers have continued this tradition, drawing names for the moons from the works of Shakespeare or Pope.

    Oberon and Titania are the largest Uranian moons, and were the first to be discovered, by Herschel in 1787. William Lassell, who was also the first to see a moon orbiting Neptune, discovered Uranus' next two moons, Ariel and Umbriel. Nearly a century passed before Dutch-American astronomer Gerard Kuiper, he of Kuiper Belt fame, found Miranda in 1948.

    In 1986, Voyager 2 visited the Uranian system and discovered an additional 10 moons, all just 16 to 96 miles (26 to154 km) in diameter:Juliet, Puck, Cordelia, Ophelia, Bianca, Desdemona, Portia, Rosalind, Cressida and Belinda. Each of those moons are roughly half water ice and half rock.

    Since then, astronomers using Hubble and ground-based observatories have raised the total to 27 known moons, and spotting these was tricky — they are as little as 8 to 10 miles (12 to 16 km) across, blacker than asphalt and nearly 3 billion miles (4.8 billion km) away.

    Between Cordelia, Ophelia and Miranda is a swarm of eight small satellites crowded together so tightly that astronomers don't yet understand how the little moons have managed to avoid crashing into each other. Anomalies in Uranus' rings lead scientists to suspect there might still be more moons.

    In addition to moons, Uranus may have a collection of Trojan asteroids — objects that share the same orbit as the planet — in a special region known as a Lagrange point. The first was discovered in 2013, despite claims that the planet's Lagrange point would be too unstable to host such bodies.

    Research & exploration


    NASA's Voyager 2 was the first and as yet, only spacecraft to visit Uranus. Although there isn't a spacecraft on its way to Uranus at the moment, astronomers regularly check in with the planet using the Hubble and Keck telescopes.

    In 2011, the Planetary Science Decadal Survey recommended that NASA consider a mission to the icy planet. And in 2017, NASA suggested a number of potential future missions to Uranus in support of the forthcoming Planetary Science Decadal Survey, including flybys, orbiters and even a spacecraft to dive into Uranus' atmosphere. Scientists are still discussing the idea. In 2019, NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center suggested one possible design could involve an atmospheric probe, similar to the one used in Jupiter during the Galileo mission.

    In 2018, an ambitious group of early-career scientists and engineers created a theoretical full mission design that would cost $1 billion, and take advantage of a planetary alignment that would happen in the 2030s. At that relatively low cost, the mission would perform minimal science, but could still include items such as a magnetometer, a methane detector and a camera.
    __________________________________

    A quick shout out to Uranus. We don't talk about her much, especially since she was demoted to a dwarf planet, so I thought it was high time to give her some coverage, since she is actually pretty cool (figuratively and literally).
    Last edited by ilan; 07-11-2019 at 12:15 PM.
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  10. #1170
    Moderator at Work ilan's Avatar
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    Video: Moon hoax not
    Deborah Byrd in HUMAN WORLD | SPACE | July 9, 2019

    Don’t believe the moon landings were real? Go ahead. Watch this.



    In the video above, filmmaker SG Collins explains why the Apollo moon landings on the moon in the late 1960s and early ’70s couldn’t have been faked. He’s talking about it from a filmmaker’s point of view, so he doesn’t try to debunk the many arguments conspiracy theorists have put forth to “prove” we didn’t go to the moon. He just explains why it wouldn’t have been possible to fake it, from the standpoint of the footage on the moon itself.

    If you’re looking for counter-arguments to conspiracy theorists’ claims that the moon landings were faked, try this page of moon conspiracy theories, debunked, from History.com.

    Code:
    https://www.history.com/news/moon-landing-fake-conspiracy-theories
    The History.com page goes through various claims by conspiracy theorists, including the now-disproven idea that film director Stanley Kubrick – whose film “2001: A Space Odyssey” was a major hit in 1968, one year before the first moon landing – helped NASA fake the moon landing footage. If you’re specifically interested in the Kubrick side of the moon landing conspiracy theory, also try this page from Snopes:

    Code:
    https://www.snopes.com/fact-check/false-stanley-kubrick-faked-moon-landings/
    The History.com page leaves out one of the biggest arguments conspiracy theorists always pull out while claiming we didn’t really go to the moon. That is the argument that the astronauts “could not possibly” have made it through the dangerous Van Allen radiation belts surrounding Earth. And yet they did survive, and, in fact, radiation dosimeters carried by Apollo astronauts showed their total dosage for the entire trip to the moon and return was not more than 2 rads over six days (you’d need a dose of over 100 rads to cause immediate acute effects from radiation poisoning; doses over 1,000 rads are nearly always fatal). Basically, they survived because they went through fast, along a path designed to give them as little exposure to radiation as possible. NASA provides a detailed answer to the question of how it was possible for the astronauts to survive the journey through that realm of space in a pdf titled The Deadly Van Allen belts?

    Want more? Listen in, as the first humans land on the moon

    Code:
    https://www.firstmenonthemoon.com/
    Be forewarned: No evidence will satisfy a conspiracy theorist who believes the moon landings were faked. In fact, in my experience, conspiracy theorists are peculiarly immune to any scientific evidence that does not support their claims.
    Last edited by ilan; 07-13-2019 at 12:28 PM.
    Beginner's Guide for Rocket, NFPS and IKS66...
    http://iptvtalk.net/showthread.php?2...-you-should-do

    Kodi Options for Rocket, NFPS and IKS66...
    http://iptvtalk.net/forumdisplay.php?71-Kodi

    Check the Announcement Section...
    http://iptvtalk.net/forumdisplay.php...-Announcements

 

 
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